If you are interested in computer hardware and the skeleton of CPU then you should have the poster size image of the below attached picture. I found it on thenextweb, this image is having everything starting from USB to chips, RAM, Hard disk etc.It is very helpful to know the name of different sockets, ports etc. so that when you will go to purchase a new desktop or laptop, you can understand the purpose of different posts. You can also ask the vendor to provide motherboard or laptop with specific post as per your need.
Get the poster size image (~25MB) of this picture from here.
You can search every hardware on Wikipedia and get the information related to that. Hardware parts of computer is upgrading every year but the basic theory always remains same.